Diary of Mrs. Julia Newton Wood
(Note from Jenny: I've added a few links to the Oregon-California Trails Association Virtual Tour and
the END OF THE OREGON TRAIL web sites so you can find out more about the places Aunt Julia's talking about.)

May 4.  Have not crossed yet.  We went to the river, but bub was so much worse we did not think best to cross.  He soon died.
May 6.  Buried our darling today.
May 7.  Crossed the Missouri.  Nothing but Indians this side.
May 8.  Sunday.  Traveled about eight miles today, as we wished to get up with our company who went on while we stayed to bury Germaine.  We came today to the Mormon graveyard.  It is about eight miles from the Missouri where the Mormons stopped after leaving Nauvoo.  Some 150 graves.
May 9.  Nothing strange today.
May 10.  Came 13 miles.  Crossed the Elkhorn River today.  The cattle forded the river.  Some came near getting drowned.  I felt very sorry for them.
May 11.  Helped a man's wagon out of the mud.  He had a wife and eleven children and only one wagon. His team poor.  We think he can never cross the plains with that team.  I feel bad for him.  We came twelve miles -- More Indians here.
May 12.  Have traveled about 14 miles.  Are with a large company.  Some Indians killed another tonight, there was about 30 here.  We are some afraid of them.  Enjoyed myself well today.  Found Thomas Green and Loumis Davidson.
May 13.  Came 15 miles today.  James has been sick all day.  Pain of the stomach.  Dust has been very disagreeable.  I am in good health and spirits.  You ought to see us.  We are in a city every night.  Cattle innumerable about us.
May 14.  Rained very hard last night.  Got some wet.  Wind blew tremendously all night and all day - the cause of our getting wet.  We came only four miles today.  The wind blew so we could not cross the river Soupfork. You cannot think how many there is here.  This is a splendid country.  All it lacks is timber.  All well.
May 15.  Sabbath morning.  How little this seems like the Lord's day.  We expect soon to cross the river.  Feel obliged to cross when we can.  Mrs. Dyer sick with the ague.  Thomas Green and Davidson here.  Look very healthy.  Have sold their teams and are with a company of 14 men - no women.  They feel well.  I did not sleep enough last night so do not feel well.  Think I never felt the value of religion as I do now.  Bless God  I can say Let Lord do as it seemeth good with me.  We have come 70 miles this week.
May 16.  Have just seen some fighting.  A man is so troublesome we can hardly get along with him.  Today he got to finding fault as usual and his hands would not stand it, so they came to blows.  Afternoon.  It rained as hard as I ever knew it to.  Our wagon leaked some.  Common rains it does not leak.  Have not put up our tent yet, as the wind blows harder than it ever knew it to there.
May 17.  Rained and blew all night.  Slept in the wagon.  Hard sleeping, but for this I care not.  How much happier I am than I could have been suffering every anxiety and suspense as I should if James had left me.  Night.  The folks next out tent are dancing.  Have not got with our company yet.
May 18.  Have not traveled today.  Last night the wind blew our tent down so we had to go into the wagon half froze but we laughed it out and made the best of it.
May 19.  Bless the Lord  Mrs. D. thinks she feels the comforts of religion.  She has been trying to find peace with her God ever since Germaine died.  She can look away by faith and see her son a glorified spirit.  Have come passed seven graves today.  One of them had the appearance of having been dug up.  One had been made this year.
May 20.  Came today about 20 miles over sandy bluffs part of the way and over beautiful prairie covered with flowers.  All together it presented a beautiful sight.  My health better than it has been for years.  Indeed I am as happy as I ever expect to be in this world.
May 21.  Very warm today.  First very warm day we have had.  Felt is severely.  I walked three miles today ahead of team to find water.  At length came to wood creek when lo it was muddy.  I could not drink it, but this is nothing, I suppose.  I do not complain. The creek is very high so we shall have to take off our wagon box and cork it up for a boat.
May 22.  Crossed the creek without any trouble.  Took one of the company's wagon's boxes.  We are with a company of ten wagons.  Good sort of folks but not pious.  Found the company we first meant to have gone with but hear bad accounts of them.  The minister is not much thought of, so we shall have to go with these.
May 23.  Very pleasant today.  Came 22 miles.  I enjoy myself well.
May 24.  Mrs. Dyer some sick.  Came 20 miles.
May 25.  Rained all day.  Came 10 miles.  It is quite cold.  Mrs. D. quite homesick.  I am in good spirits.
May 26.  Came 22 miles.  Raining.  Heard of a man dying today.  He had taken cold and it settled on his lungs and he bled to death.
May 27.  Have enjoyed myself today very much.  Saw a sick woman.  She said she was ready to die if it was the Lord's will.
May 28.  Nothing special today.
May 29.  Sunday.  Traveled.  It makes me feel bad, but we think we cannot help it as we are obliged to keep with the company and they travel.  They said when we talked of joining them that they would not travel when they could help it.  Have been reading thoughts on missions.  I think it just what I need.  May the Lord give us all the Missionary spirit.
May 30.  Morning.  Cold and rainy and I am very sad.  One of the company found fault with our watching and James told him just what he thought and they had some words.  Nothing but this makes me homesick.  I do wish to show them that I love their souls. How my heart aches for them.  There are 36 of us and of all that number, none love the Lord.  All but our company profane His Holy name.  Pray for me that my light may shine in such a manner that they may glorify my Saviour.  Night.  Judson went out hunting over the bluffs and has not come in yet.
May 31.  Came only 16 miles.  Very warm and in good spirits.

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... of living near to my God as now there is so much to draw one's mind from off where it ought to be, and I feel so anxious to set a good example.  Pray for me that my faith fail not.
June 7.  Very warm, Consequently a thunder shower in which fell hail as large as a walnut of the largest kind and we were glad to see it, as we do not have any good water.  We picked up some and had a drink of good water.  Musketo's very thick.
June 8.  Pleasant day, but followed by a thunder storm as usual.  James not well tonight.
June 9.  Washed this fore-noon in tin pail.  James made a wash board to suit it.  We are now about 18 miles from Laramie Fort.  See plenty of Indians and French traders.  Night.  Came ten miles this afternoon.  Just had a hurricane.  Tore down our tent, blew away our dishes and done it so quick we hardly knew it.
June 10.  Friday.  Passed the Fort today.  Saw plenty of Indians.  Fine, noble-looking fellows they were, too, and very neat.  Their tents are made of tanned buffalo skin terminating in a point at the roof in this shape Night.  Feel very sad.  Every day we throw something away in order to lighten our load.  Expect to part with our stove.  We shall then have no facilities for cooking.
June 11.  Passed over hills very steep and precipitous.  Nothing but up hill and down.  We walked up all the hills.  Came about 14 miles.  Stood it quite well.  Expect hills all the time for 125 miles.  They are called the Black Hills.
Sunday June 12.  Traveled 20 miles today.  Could not stop as there was not feed.  So tired from our walk yesterday that I cannot keep awake.
June 13.  Monday.  Have not traveled today as we came to good grass and timber.  One of the company killed an antelope today and an Indian killed a buffalo close by, so we had some.  They were both very good.
June 14.  Came 20 miles over good roads.  One of the men killed a buffalo today.  Have not been well since I walked so much.  Mrs. D. not well.  Camped on the Platt.  Beautiful place and not homesick yet.
June 15.  Came 25 miles. Am well.  Mrs. D. quite sick.
June 16.  This day I am 26 years old.  Can it be possible.  What good have I done?  I am sad to think I have not spent my life to a better purpose.  May the Lord help me do better for the time to come.  Have come 20 miles today.
June 17.  Came over sandy hills today.  Very hard roads.  Mrs. D. sick yet.  My health good and I have that peace which passeth all understanding.
June 18.  Passed two trading houses.
June 19.  Sunday.  Left the Platte.  Came 18 miles today.  Passed one trading house.
June 20.  Came by two poisoned springs.  Water looked clear, but when stirred it looked black as ink.  They say if it is not stirred, it is not very hurtful.  Luman Dyer sick.  Think the chill-fever taken very severe.
June 21.  Started at five.  Came 7 miles to the river Sweetwater.  This is a narrow but deep stream of water and quite clear for this part of the country.  Crossed on a bridge.  Paid $2 for crossing the 9 wagons only here was a trading tent and here we saw a woman and two children living in tent built after the Indian fashion.  The woman appeared very smart and neat.  She said they had lived there a year and three months.  Here is Independence Rock.  It is composed of hard granite and is a singular curiosity.  It stands alone nearly a mile from any other rocks or chain of mountains.  It was first found on the 4th of July - the cause of its name.  It is about 600 years long, 120 wide, and about 150 feet high, gradually sloping up from the ground so the top is accessible from almost every point.  Came past the Devil's Gate, likewise.  This is a curiosity worth noticing.  It is a passage through rocks 400 feet through the Sweetwater.  The wind has blown very hard and the dust has flew in a manner that has been very disagreeable.
June 22.  Have not traveled this afternoon.  Part of the company drove faster than we wished to drive, so the rest of us, which was about half, concluded to stop and rest our teams.  We were some sorry to do so, as two of the men who went on had been through to California.
June 23.  Came about 15 miles today over very sandy roads.  We are none of us well.  Saw quite a number of dead cattle.  We suppose they were killed by alkali.  My health poor.  Think the water effects it.  James quite sick.  Am in good spirits, however.
June 24.  Luman Dyer sick yet.  He got some better and over-done and is much worse. I and James some better, now well.  Mrs. Hell, a lady with our company, is very sick.  Pretty hard times.
June 25.  Saturday.  Traveled half the day and came to good grass, so we stopped as grass is very scarce along here.  We are all better but Mr. D.  He is quite low.  Some concerned about him.  He is very weak, cannot get strength.  Had some snow today.  It was close by the road.  It is quite cold here in the mountains.
June 26.  Sunday. Came twenty-five miles. Obliged to, as we could find grass no sooner.  We are now on a summit of the South Pass.  The mountains do not look as I expected.  The ascent is so gradual that we could not tell that we were on the mountains if we did not know it.  Mr. D. no better.  Mrs. Hall worse.  The rest of us not very well.
June 27.  Morning.  I am very much cast down in spirit.  James and Judson have such hard words between them that it makes me homesick.  Lord help me to do right for Jesus sake.  How I feel my nothingness.  Lord show me what I am.  Show me my heart.  Night.  Came 18 miles.  Wind blew a perfect hurricane and we came against it and the dust flew more than you can imagine and to top all, it was as cold as winter.  I kept myself covered up with bed clothes.
June 28.  Very cold last night.  I suffered some from it.  We came only 13 miles today, as we came where there was grass and water and there was no more for 20 miles, consequently we were obliged to stop.  We are in comfortable health.
June 29.  Came 22 miles today.  Crossed Big Sandy.
June 30.  We came to Green River this morning.  Have stayed all day.
July 1.  Crossed the river this morning.  Just saw a sight that I shall remember to my dying day.  A man is just drowned.  We were a little way from the river when we heard a dreadful noise.  We ran to the river and O what a sight presented itself.  A man just on the point of being drowned, crying in dreadful accents in his company, "Boys save me, Boys save me", but little effort was made to save him.  Everyone was so much frightened they could do nothing and he came up and went down and then down for the last time and sank to rise no more.  He had a brother about 14 years old with him.
July 2.  Traveled about 18 miles.  Crossed Hauss fork.  Forded it.  The water run into our wagon.
July 3.  Sunday.  Came 12 miles this forenoon.  Had a time in the camp this morning.  Two men ran off with two horses which was all we had in the company.  This make it bad as we have no horses to find grass nor try the depths of the rivers.  They stole about $10 worth of dried apples of us, as they were in the wagon they slept in.  We had hired the owner of them to carry them.  I forgot to write that Judson left us the first day of June.  We think we gave him no reason to find fault with us.  He wanted to rule the whole of us and we were not quite willing that he should.  If he did not have his way, he was angry immediately.  his only business was to help when told.  He thought no one was master but him.  I think I shall learn more of human nature crossing the plains than I should in all my life to have staid at home.  My heart is very sad sometimes in view of the wickedness I see every day at others I do not feel as I had ought to.  I feel most of the time willing to live or die which ever shall produce most to the glory of God.
July 4.  Over mountains, some steep and stony.  Had some snow today.  Very warm.
July 5.  Came 20 miles.  Am well and in good spirits.
July 6.  Have not traveled.  This is a pleasant place on a mountain, higher mountains surround us.
July 7.  Came about 12 miles.  Crossed Bear River.  This is a very rapid stream fed by melting snows.  Difficulty crossing.  Water very cold.  James was obliged to wade to drive the team.  I am not very well, owing, I presume, to indigestible food.  We passed a grave today.  The man's name was Willcox, died the 4th of July, 1853, just three days ago.
July 8.  Feel somewhat sad today.  Last night I was sitting and talking with a woman by a tent (in) which was a man, the owner of the tent, the woman they were hired to carry through and they had had some hard words.  We were sitting there talking about one thing when he suddenly awoke and said we had been talking about him.  Told what we said.  Was very angry.  He was sick, had a high fever, and I thought he was not in his right mind, as we had not said a word, but he still persists in it.  He said he wished Wood would keep his G-D-D wife out of his tent, but even this has worked together for my good.  It has tendency to humble me sorely.  They shall have perfect peace whose mind is stayed on God.
July 9.  Have seen greater curiosities today than I ever expected to see.  Such looking mountains composed mostly of rocks, some of them perpendicular varying from 5 to 600 feet high.  Saw a family tonight that came here last fall, their team gave out and they were obliged to stay here.  They dug a hole in the ground with a pick, the ground being so hard he could dig it with nothing else, but when dug it was just as hard as a stone wall; dug a fireplace an oven.  She said they went into it when they had just a hole large enough to contain them.  Have 5 children.  We are 43 miles from Salt Lake.  They had not provisions enough to last to Salt Lake.  At that, their team was obliged to go and by the time he could go to the city and back, the snow had become too deep to cross the mountains, so they stayed and lived on wild meat.
July 10.  Sunday. Traveled about 12 miles; does not seem like the Sabbath.  Seems as if Satan was determined to sift me as wheat, but may I not hope my Savior prays for me; oh for a closer walk with God.  One road today was difficult and dangerous.
July 15.  Have just written a few lines to Permelia and father.  Are now in the heart of the city.  It is quite a busy city.  Yesterday Mrs. B and I got lost and were so tired out we could hardly stir.  I think I never was so used up in my life.
July 16.  We are now 25 miles from the city.  Passed through a beautiful country farm under a high state of cultivation.
July 17.  Sunday.  Have not traveled today, as our folks were obliged to go back to the city. Oh that I had more of the spirit of Christ.
July 18.  James and Luman returned.
July 19.  Came a short distance today.
July 22.  Crossed Bear River today.  It is the same that we crossed some time before.  It is much larger than when we saw it before.  About 80 miles from the city.  Been very warm: tonight quite cold and windy.  Rained some.
July 23.  Came 23 miles.  Found no water in 20 miles.  When we did find some it was brackish.  Suffered some with the heat.
July 24.  Sunday/ Came about 16 miles today.  Was obliged to travel, as we had no water to drink where we stayed last night.  Oh that I could do right that I may claim the blessing of God.
July 25.  Came 22 miles.  Good roads.  I am in good spirits.  Never enjoyed myself better in my life.  My health some better than it has been.  Sometimes I long for the comforts of home, but not often.
July 28.  Came 18 miles today.  Heard of two Indians being shot.  It creates quite an excitement.  Some fear them very much.  The Indians say they will have revenge.
July 29.  Came over mountains very steep - some of them.  One was so steep it would not have taken much to have turned it end for end.  How well I enjoy myself.  I never expect to have an easier time.
July 30.  Came 20 miles.  Heard quite a story today as we were passing along we saw quite a number of wagons stopped.  We soon found out the reason.  They said there was about 500 Indians 4 miles ahead ready to revenge the death of those that were shot.  They said some of their men had been up and saw them.  We were some afraid, but not much, but we soon saw a man that said he thought there was no danger.  Sure enough, there was not an Indian to be seen.  --no feed tonight.
July 31.  Sunday.  Started this a.m. before breakfast.  Traveled till about 4 o'clock without grass.  This was some discouraging, but little then.
August 1.  Started before light in order to find more grass.  Came about 2 miles, found good grass. Stayed and got out breakfast and came on 10 miles.  Smell of dead cattle very disagreeable.  Saw a great many but not in proportion to the number that crosses the plains.  Also the dust is almost insupportable.
August 2.  Had a good place to camp last night.  Came about 16 miles.  Quite cool today.  My health not very good.  I think the plains are a very healthy place.  There is not near as much deaths in proportion to the number who cross the plains as there is in Mich.
August 3.  Came 18 miles.  Been cool.  It is very cold tonight, as indeed it is every night.
August 4.  We are now on the much dreaded Humboldt.  Came here today.  This part of the road is called by all the most disagreeable part of the road.  We shall travel upwards to 300 miles on this river.  Immediately after leaving this river we come to the desert where it is 20 miles without water but I have made up my mind to dread nothing.
August 5.  Have come 10 miles.  You can hardly imagine how dusty it has been.  We can hardly breathe.  The ground is in many places covered with pure Salratus.  I gathered some.
August 6.  Came  20 miles.  Quite comfortable.  The dust did not fly as bad as usual.  We were led to expect from what we heard that we should have no water but what came out of the Humboldt which was very poor, but we have crossed 4 beautiful streams today fed by melting snow from the mountains.  My health not very good for the last 2 days.  Came across an old acquaintance by the name of Simpson.  They came from Mich. Kent Co. Used to work for Ensign.
August 7.  Sunday.  Have come 18 miles today.  I felt very sad this morning because I could not enjoy Sabbath Day privileges.  It has been very dusty.  You would not have known me if you could have seen me I was so covered with dust.  Thought of my dear mother tonight.  May I keep myself in readiness to meet her in Heaven.  Oh for a closer walk with God.
August 8.  Came about 12 miles.  Has been very dusty.  I feel very sad on account of the trouble between Luman Dyer and James.  We traded our cattle that we brought from Mich for new ones.  One yoke of them was so lazy that unless urged continually, they would not draw at all.  James was determined that we should trade.  The cattle was as much ours as theirs, but Luman on account of their beauty was unwilling that they should be whipped and so he must make a fuss about it.  Tonight we got our meals separate, but the Lord has helped me not to feel hard towards them.  Such things make me sick soul and body because it is a sin in the sight of God.
August 9.  Have come 14 miles today over rough and stony mountains.  Some of them so steep and sidling as to be some dangerous unless very cautious.  Luman feels some better today as he has found his storms do not amount to anything nor accomplish anything.  Has concluded to give it up.  I presume he will be very pleasant for some time.
August 10.  Came about 6 miles today and laid over as we had to go over mountains if we went farther so we stayed where the feed was good.  My health not good of late.  Troubled some with old complaints.  Feel as if I should like to be in a civilized land to stay over night.  We see almost every day men coming from California.  Some bring good new, some not.  They generally pack on mules; some come with four mule teams.
August 11.  Came 12 miles over a very mountainous country.  Hills very steep and long.  I walked up about all the mountains.  Heard of a man being killed and two wounded by the Indians.  The man that was killed was walking along unarmed.  The Indians were concealed in the bushes; they stripped him completely and left him dead.  The occurrence was seen on this side of the river some 2 or 3 miles off.  Those that were wounded were also unarmed but they frightened them off with stones.  The Indians shot with arrows.
August 12.  Traveled as usual in the dust in so much we were covered in a few minutes. A man had his whole team stole last night; is left with no way of getting through.  There is no need for such work if people will only watch their cattle.  Horses and cattle are continually being stolen.  How solemn I feel today.  It seems as if I was in the direct presence of God.  Oh that he would cleanse me from all my sins and show me my heart.  I do bless God, I do praise him that he has prepared a way whereby poor sinners can come to him and find mercy.  May the Lord bless all with us; may he in great mercy bless Luman, Elizabeth, and Judson.  In my heart of hearts I love their souls.  Oh my God, my God, bless my Dear Dear Husband.  Keep him, oh keep him from sin.  Along all this road I have seen none that loved God, but that woman who was sick on Platt River.
August 13.  Do not travel of late, as we wish to prepare our cattle for the desert.  Have come only 10 miles today.  Been so dusty we could hardly breathe.  My health quite poor.  I feel somewhat discouraged, but not more than I should be at home, as I am some in hopes the pure climate of California will cure me.
August 14.  Sunday. It does not seem like Sabbath Day at all.  There is no Sunday on the plains.  What would the world come to were it not for Sabbath and sanctuary privileges.  I long for the time when I shall enjoy them again.  Came 14 miles.  Did not stop at noon as usual, as we could find no feed.  There is a great company here.
August 15.  Have come 20 miles, good roads, pleasant time today.  Had the headache all day a little.  So far the road along the Humboldt has been like all the rest; the road more pleasant than I expected.
August 16.  Came 10 miles.  Wind blew very hard this afternoon, consequently dust bad.   The weather is comfortable.  The nights are cold.  Dust not as bad as I expected, but let one thing be considered I had anticipated suffering everything, and so found things better than I thought.  But let one come not prepared to endure hardships and he will find enough of them.
August 17.  Traveled all day without grass.  Found but little at night;  been quite pleasant today.  We suffered quite considerable for water.  The river water is so poor we do not like to drink it.  We got along very slow as we have to go so much out of our way.
August 18.  Came 18 miles.  Roads some as I anticipated they would be on the Humboldt; very sandy, dust blew very hard but for dust or anything else I would not care, but oh the wickedness I see. It almost breaks my heart.  There is hardly a woman on the plains but what swears.  It seems that their whole natures are changed.  I hardly know what to think.  It seems hard to believe people are so wicked.
August 19.  Traveled over sandy roads most of the way very heavy sand.  I have walked some today.
August 20.  We now begin to see hard times, or rather the cattle do.  The roads are most of the way heavy sand; no grass of any consequence.  The roads are lined with dead cattle.  Smell, of course, very disagreeable.  The desert close at hand.  Provisions getting scarce.  There is a tradingpost every few miles.  Men from California with the intention of buying sick and lame cattle; They stay long enough to recruit their cattle up and drive them through.  Some of them have brandy to sell and sugar.
August 21  Sunday.  Came 12 miles today.  Very warm, but much more comfortable weather than I expected.  Can not realize that it is Sabbath.  We are now in California but about 300 miles of where we intend to stop.
August 22.  Very discouraging day.  The sun poured down its intense heat;  the dust formed a heavy cloud.  The cattle were very much jaded.  Men somewhat discouraged.  I am not discouraged, but am not well.
August 23.  Have just reached the great meadow or grazing ground.  Here are several thousand acres of good grass; her immigrants stop to recruit their cattle and cut grass for the desert.
August 24.  Stayed here today.  Tonight a man was drowned.  They had all waded across the river to drive the cattle over to grass.  The man that was drowned could not swim, as he was wading across he suddenly came to a deep hole; for a little while he swam, not thinking the water was deep much and we all supposed he could swim and so did not warn him of his danger.  When he had swam as afar as he wanted to, went to stand upon his feet when lo there was no bottom and he, becoming frightened, drowned without coming at all to the surface of the water - that is, his head did not come up.  Every effort was made to save him and to get him up after he had sunk, but could not find him till too late.  Every effort was made to restore him but in vain and in less than 3 hours from the time he was in the enjoyment of perfect health he was lying in the cold grave.
August 25.  Traveled about 8 miles today.  Saw a great many dead cattle.  There is almost everything left here as people wish to lighten their loads before crossing the desert.  It is about 30 miles to the desert from where we first strike the grazing ground.  The Humboldt sinks and there is no more water for 40 miles, but this year the river is so much higher, that the water runs up ten miles farther than known to before.
August 26.  Came about 15 miles.  We are now at the commencement of the desert where we shall obtain with swimming and wading get some grass.
August 27.
August 28.  Have crossed the desert.  Did not have as hard time as I expected.  Started from the water about two in the afternoon, traveled until about 9 the next morning before we reached the river.  The first 20 miles good roads;  the last 12 miles heavy sand, but not near so bad as I expected.  Our cattle did not seem to mind it at all;  did not suffer much for feed or water.  Here at Carson river there is a little town called Ragtown and sure enough it was houses made of cloth.  Here we could buy all the provisions wanted if we had money enough.  Bacon 75c a lb. Sugar 50c ; fresh beef 35c ; potatoes 35c and we were out of sugar and bacon and were obliged to have at their prices.  Here we sold our team and wagon.  The wagon they all said was good for nothing in California, it being very light and they use only heavy ones in California.  We got 350$ for our cattle and have the use of them 200 miles.  The man runs his own risk; had 3 yoke of cattle all in first rate order.
August 29.  Came about 8 miles.  Camped in a beautiful place surrounded be trees;  the cause of its beauty.  we see so few trees that any place is lovely where they are found.  Oh how anxious I am to get through; I fear I am becoming so wicked.  Oh, my God, keep me from the evil that is in the world; the heart is indeed deceitful above all things.  She can know it.
August 31.  Came over a desert 8 miles long; roads very heavy sand; we hear that there is great suffering among the immigrants along Humboldt River now; no feed for cattle and they give out.  People out of provisions and none to be had.  It is very bad if as represented, and we have no reason to doubt it.
September 1.  Came 18 miles.  The first part of the road rough and sandy.  Came this afternoon through a beautiful valley.  My health not good.
September 2.  Came about 16 miles.  12 miles a desert, very rough road.  One of the oxen is very sick which makes it hard for the others.  This is the hardest part of the road.
September 3.  Are now in Carson Valley.  This is a beautiful place.  The mountains on the right of road are covered with a heavy growth of pine.  Scattered all over the valley are gardens full of potatoes, peas, beans, onions, and all kinds of vegetables.  Every 2 or 3 miles is a trading post with almost everything for sale.  Bought some potatoes and beef today.  Potatoes $12 per bushel; beef 25c a pound.
September 4.  Sunday.  As we passed along today every person was employed.  Women cleaning and ironing, men at their business trading,  I presume half of them do not know that it is the Lord's day.  Had a chance to hire out both of us for $100 a month.
September 5.  Came about 19 miles today.  8 miles of the worst road on the journey.  It is called the Big Canyon.  It is enclosed on both sides by high rocky cliffs.  The stream comes rushing down from the mountains roaring like a cataract.  The road is as bad as rocks and stones can make it and be passable.  This canyon is by far the greatest curiosity that we have seen.
September 6.  Came 12 miles today over the first ridge of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.  We thought we had passed over mountains before, but his beats all we have seen.  We got up without any difficulty all but one place.  It was nothing but smooth rock for about        feet and the cattle could get no foot hold.  Some of them fell down and they got up with great difficulty.
September 7.  Passed over the second ridge of the Sierra Nevada.  Road very bad, but not near as bad as it was yesterday.  We expect nothing but up hill and down all the way to Placerville.
September 8.  Rocky as usual;  walked almost all the way; stand it well.  It seems for a few days as if nothing would hurt me.  I can walk 13 miles in a day and it only makes me a little tired.  Does not hurt me and up hill most of the way, at that.  I think it is owing to the purity of the air.  The nights are very cold.  We cannot sleep very comfortable.  We are surrounded on all sides by snow.
September 9.  Came about 14 miles over mountains; very stoney; covered with a heavy growth of pine, cedar and hemlock, larger than any trees you ever see.
September 10.  Came 18 miles to a place called Sky Park.  It is a very pleasant place.  The owner is rich.
September 11.  Sunday.  Arrived at our place of destination for the present, where we shall leave the team.  It is about 50 miles from Sacramento at a little place called Weavertown.
A friend that frowns is better than a smiling enemy.

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